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Alicia Valero, Antonio Valero, and Guiomar Calvo (2015)

Using thermodynamics to improve the resource efficiency indicator GDP/DMC

Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 94(0):110 - 117.

Abstract This paper analyzes the drawbacks of using the lead indicator Gross Domestic Product divided by Domestic Material Consumption (GDP/DMC) proposed by the European Commission as part of the Resource Efficiency Roadmap. As an alternative, we propose to assess mineral resource efficiency through exergy replacement costs instead of using mass terms. Exergy replacement costs represent the useful energy that would be required to return minerals from the most dispersed state (the bedrock) to their original conditions (of composition and concentration in the mineral deposits). Dispersing a scarce mineral such as gold or oil has a much higher replacement cost than that of iron or limestone and in the final accounting, the first minerals have a greater weighting. Consequently, the tonnage produced and dispersion degree are considered in the proposed index. This new index would lead to more developed policies that could reduce the consumption of scarce materials with higher replacement costs. The suitability of the proposed indicator is evaluated through the case study of mineral balance in Spain.

Domestic material consumption

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Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.