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Alicia Valero D and Antonio Valero (2012)

What are the clean reserves of fossil fuels?

Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 68:126 - 131.

The costs associated to the abatement of pollutants coming from the burning of fossil fuels are calculated through the thermodynamic property exergy. We define the clean ton of a fossil fuel as the difference between its maximum recoverable energy (or exergy) and its exergy abatement cost. This way, energy reserves can be expressed in terms of clean tons of oil equivalent, ctoe, instead of the conventional measure expressed as toe. Additionally, the energy content of fossil fuels is affected by the conditions of the environment. An increase in atmospheric CO2 emissions and temperature due to the greenhouse effect, will lead to a decrease in their available energy. Hence, the actual clean tons will take into account both issues, the decrease of exergy due to the utilization of clean technologies plus the climate change effect. In the paper we make an inventory of the clean exergy fossil fuel reserves. The results show that the exergy of proven reserves are decreased by about 11%, if these two factors are taken into account.

Fossil fuels

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The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.