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Antonio Valero and Alicia Valero D (2012)

Exergy of comminution and the Thanatia Earth's model

Energy, 44:1085-1093.

The exergy assessment of the mineral capital on Earth has been usually calculated as the minimum and actual exergy required for replacing the minerals in composition, concentration and quantity from a completely degraded state where all resources have been extracted and dispersed to the conditions found currently in Nature, i.e. from what we call Thanatia or the Crepuscular Planet to the mine conditions. In this evaluation, we have assumed that the concentration exergy is calculated as the minimum energy involved in concentrating a substance from an ideal mixture of two components, which is only strictly valid for ideal mixtures. When there is not chemical cohesion among the substances, it remains valid for solid mixtures. But the cohesion energy is always present in any mineral. Hence, the aim of this paper is twofold: 1) it explain show to calculate the comminution exergy for any mineral or rock as a function of the comminuted size, and 2) what should be the reference level for the average size fragment in the Crepuscular Planet. The results of the study indicate that the comminution exergy term is very low compared to the concentration exergy and can be neglected when assessing the exergy of naturally comminuted minerals found in mines having Thanatia as reference. Nevertheless, as industry requires in most of cases very fine grain sizes, industrial comminution consumes very large amounts of exergy and cannot be neglected.

Exergy of comminution

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Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

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 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

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Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.