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Alicia Valero D, Antonio Valero, and Amaya Mart\'ınez (2010)

Inventory of the exergy resources on earth including its mineral capital

Energy, 35:989-995.

This paper makes an inventory of the natural capital on earth in terms of exergy, which includes not only renewable and non-renewable energy resources, but also non-fuel minerals. The exergy method is very suitable for the accounting of our natural capital because all kinds of resources can be assessed with a single property. For the case of minerals, exergy allows to unify properties tonnage and grade. Furthermore, the exergy replacement costs of minerals includes additional information of the state of technology. The aggregation capacity of the exergy and exergy replacement cost indicators increases the analysis potential of the results. This way, the non-fuel mineral's wealth can be compared to that of fuel minerals or even to other natural resources. The results of this study reveal that the real scarcity problems that humankind are facing are not based on the lack of energy sources, but on the lack of minerals.

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Logo instituto Circe
Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.