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Elias L Khalil (1990)

Entropy law and exhaustion of natural resources Is Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's paradigm defensible?

Ecological Economics, 2(2):163 - 178.

I examine whether the entropy law dictates absolute limits to growth. I distinguish the entropy law proper - diffusion without coherent work - from its application, the Carnot cycle - diffusion with coherent work. While the entropy law pertains to mechanistic systems, the Carnot cycle is the result of purposeful agency. Since the economic process is carried out by purposeful agency to generate coherent work, it is not governed by the entropy law. Rather, it resembles the Carnot cycle. Resources hence cannot be defined objectively à la the entropy law. Resources can only be defined relative to the purposeful agency. Thus, the prognosticators of doom, like Georgescu-Roegen, cannot be bolstered by the entropy law.

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The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

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We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

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Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

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A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.