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Reiner Kuemmel (1989)

Energy as a factor of production and entropy as a pollution indicator in macroeconomic modelling

Ecological Economics, 1(2):161 - 180.

Fluctuating energy prices and the environment's limited capacity for absorbing pollution constitute significant uncertainties for future industrial evolution. Solving a set of differential equations and using the Simplex algorithm in linear programming we look into the questions how changing energy inputs and prices have affected industrial growth in the past, and how the energy system can be optimized so that pollution becomes minimum in the future. We obtain production functions which depend linearly on energy and exponentially on the ratios of labor/capital and energy/capital. They describe well the growth of output in West Germany and the U.S.A. during the last two decades and the responses to theenergy price explosions. Energy conservation was an important response element. The most optimistic possible savings of primary energy by heat exchangers, heat pumps and cogeneration at (the present) fixed energy demand profiles are computed to be 54% in the Netherlands, 36% in West Germany, and 59% in Japan. A pollution indicator “entropy production� is proposed and incorporated in a model of enviromental constraints on industrial growth.

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Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Ulysea S.L. - Informática

The Material Limits of Energy Transition: Thanatia

Antonio Valero Capilla, Alicia Valero Delgado and Guiomar Calvo

This book provides a holistic view of raw mineral depletion in the context of renewable energy transistion.

The material limits Thanatia


Thanatia. Los límites minerales del planeta

mites minerales del planeta

 Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado interviewed by Adrián Almazán

We need a material transition, not only energetic, that restores nature and effectively reuses materials. Gaia must be cared for by extending life on Earth and slowing its degradation towards Thanatia.

Thanatia los limites


Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Cover Thermodynamics

Wojciech Stanek (Editor)

This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management.

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Cover Thanatia

A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment by (author): Antonio Valero Capilla and Alicia Valero Delgado

Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today.